"Music therapy is an established health profession that uses music and the therapeutic relationship to address physical, psychological, cognitive and/or social functioning for patients of all ages and disabilities. Because music therapy is a powerful and physically noninvasive medium, unique outcomes are possible when interventions are directed to reduce pain, anxiety, and depression. These outcomes appear to be mediated through the individual’s emotional, cognitive and interpersonal responsiveness to the music and/or the supportive music therapy relationship... When music is employed as an ambient and adjunct modality or tool during procedures, in the perioperative environment, and/or for use in chronic pain management... the Board Certified Music Therapist employs a wide variety of music therapy interventions based on a) the best available evidence from the published literature, b) the therapist’s training, expertise and specializations, and c) the client’s needs and preferences. Programming and selection of individualized music and sound stimuli is only a small piece of the Board Certified Music Therapist’s practice. A diverse array of underlying theories forms the foundation for music therapy interventions. Examples include frameworks from behavioral, psychodynamic, psychological, and neurobiological theories. For the topic of pain and pain management, emerging findings from neuroscience with applied music therapy interventions are trending towards a fuller understanding of why certain music therapy interventions influence outcomes more favorably than others" (AMTA).
American Music Therapy Association, Inc. Music Therapy and Music-Based Interventions in the Treatment and Management of Pain: Selected References and Key Findings. Retrieved 01/13/13 from http://www.musictherapy.org/assets/1/7/MT_Pain_2010.pdf</p>