Music is an effective tool in pain management, especially during dental procedures, blood draws, and before surgery because it is an enjoyable stimulus to either focus or distract an individual from pain, or to mask undesirable environmental sounds (Tague, 2007). Pain may be a warning that medical care is needed, but uncontrolled pain will undermine general functioning, ability to work, social and emotional adjustment (Sarafino, 2006; Gfeller, 2008). Music has been demonstrated to decrease anxiety, which enhances anesthetic and analgesic effectiveness and therefore reduces amount of medication, expediated recovery and shortening length of hospitalization (Gfeller, 2008).
Cognitive Pain Control Strategies See Sarafino (2006).
Music as an Information Agent See Gfeller (2008).
Music as a Positive Environmental Stimulus See Gfeller (2008).
Music as a Stimulus for Active Focus or Distraction See Gfeller (2008).
Music for Relaxation Training Select appropriate musical stimuli to assist muscle relaxation training sessions. Teach music to be a cue for a relaxation response, and as a positive leisure-time skill (Gfeller & Thaut, 2008).
Gfeller, K. E. (2008). Music Therapy, Medicine, and Well-Being. In Davis, W. B., Gfeller, K. E., and Thaut, M. H. (3rd Edition) An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice (209-246). Silver Spring, MD: The American Music Therapy Association, Inc.
Gfeller, K. E. and Thaut, M. H. (2008). Music Therapy in the Treatment of Behavioral-Emotional Disorders. In Davis, W. B., Gfeller, K. E., and Thaut, M. H. (3rd Edition) An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice (209-246). Silver Spring, MD: The American Music Therapy Association, Inc.
Tague, Daniel. (December 79, 2007). Pain - Forget About It! Using Music Effectively to Manage Pain. [Web log comment] Retrieved from http://musicmakessense.blogspot.com/2007/12/ pain-forget-about-it-using-music.html
James E. Riley, MT-BC